SQUARE PIANOS - a short history

Square pianos like the one shown here first appeared in London in 1766. Harpsichord players loved them - their treble tones sounded so charming - and these 'small Piano Fortes' were so inexpensive! Plain examples sold for as little as £18: about half the asking price for a single-manual harpsichord from Jacob Kirckman or from Burkat Shudi (the two leading makers). Also, their small size and convenient shape made them suitable for any room. In fact they were so portable they could be carried from room to room with ease.

From 1766 to c.1790 the harpsichord and piano existed side by side, rated as equally useful instruments, depending on what music you were playing. Consequently many wealthy home owners kept both instruments, often in the same room, finding that a small pianoforte could be easily accommodated. Your visitors would then see that you were up-to-date with the latest trends.

The novelty of such instruments created a new fashion almost overnight. Celebrated composers of the era who owned and used such Piano-fortes included Johann Christian Bach, Gluck, Paisiello, Cimarosa, and Clementi, not to mention music historian Charles Burney, who bought several for his family, friends and pupils. It is virtually certain that Mozart would have played on such instruments too, especially during his ill-fated trip to Paris (1777-8) where he renewed his friendship with J. C. Bach whom he had last encountered in London thirteen years earlier.

But their most influential devotees were high society women such as Queen Charlotte of England (formerly Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz) and Marie Antoinette of France (daughter of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa). Both were fond of music and, like many of their contemporaries, they were charmed by these pianos, not simply in solo pieces but most importantly, in accompaniments for songs. Music-making in a domestic setting was an essential and fashionable activity at any supper party and in this context vocal items, with a suitable accompaniment from pianos like this one, were much valued. Empress Catherine of Russia had several such pianos dispatched for St Petersburg, of which her favourite was reportedly one by Zumpé & Buntebart fitted with organ stops in a cabinet beneath, coupled so that both instruments were heard at the same time. Such combined piano-organs were very popular with wealthy patrons in Paris too.

The most prestigious makers in the pre-1780 period were Johannes Zumpe and Gabriel Buntebart, Adam Beyer, John Pohlman. Others who deserve mention with the dates of their earliest known pianos include Frederick Beck (1769), Thomas Garbutt (1772), George Fröschle (1772), Christopher Ganer (1775) and John Geib (1777). It can be readily seen that many of them appear to be of German origin, and all worked in a small part of London centred on Broad Street. If Garbutt was the first native English maker among this group, another who gained a high reputation was Thomas Haxby, resident in York.

From 1768 onwards square pianos from Zumpe's workshop were fitted with three hand-operated stops in the compartment at the left of the keyboard. This innovation was swiftly adopted by other makers too.

  • The first stop lifts the treble dampers (from middle C upwards);
  • the second stop lifts the bass dampers;
  • the third presses buff leather against the end of each string so that used with the other stops it imitates the sound of a gut-strung harp.

For country dances, or for extemporary music making you might use the continuous sustaining mode by raising the dampers throughout. If your music did not stray far from the opening key, this would be an enjoyable, lively sound and was very popular. You can hear something similar today in Tyrolean folkmusic groups incorporating a hammered dulcimer. (Listen when the music stops, and hear the reverberation from the dulcimer strings!) Charles Burney complained that on a visit to Paris his hostess , Madame Brillon, would not play any music on her English pianoforte without this sustaining stop. When they were playing some of his own recently-composed music he tried to suggest that they might play it without this reverberation, but she declined. 'C'est sec' she said.

These were by far the most popular pianos throughout Europe in the late eighteenth century. Hundreds of examples survive from France, Spain, Belgium, Holland, Germany and Switzerland. They were equally popular in Sweden and Russia, and in North America. Some were fitted with pedals (the earliest known, by Adam Beyer, is dated 1774) either to work the stops already mentioned, or as an addition that opened part of the lid (the so-called 'swell' making greater contrasts of piano and forte). A much rarer pedal, sometimes fitted by Adam Beyer, moved the keyboard to sound a delicate una corda, activating only one string of each unison pair. An example survives at Heaton Hall, Manchester, but not in working order. The inspiration for this seems to be the Forte-pianos of Americus Backers exhibited at the Thatched House in 1771.

While many German makers copied the design of these 'English Pianofortes', others favoured a concept that stayed closer to the clavichord. In the middle Rhine area local craftsmen used a lower string tension, more like a clavichord, and a different type of hammer mechanism (with hammers attached to the keys click here for picture), set up to give a shallow touch. The earliest detailed representation of this design dates from 1772, showing the distinctive mechanism, lever over dampers, and hammers with hollow heads. [See The Pianoforte in the Classical Era, Plate 12.] Such pianos were widely admired in German-speaking areas throughout the 1770s, often equipped with knee levers to change registrations, lifting the dampers, and operating the moderator and harp stops. Christian Baumann of Zweibrucken, whose square pianos were approved by Mozart, made instruments of this type, while by contrast Hubert, court instrument maker at Ansbach, and Steinbruck, from Gotha copied the Zumpe model.

French followers of fashion were not impressed with the basic trestle stands usually supplied with London made pianos before 1790. So if such pianos arrived in Paris with English stands they were routinely replaced with screw-in conically tapered legs, often fluted in typically Louis XV style, popular with French musicians for several decades. Shown below is an example inscribed by Sebastien Erard, Paris, 1793. The use of four pedals was standard: Steibelt's directions to players of his very popular piano pieces give examples of their use, singly or in combinations, to enhance the mood of the music. In this example there are five pedals, providing: buff [harp], moderator [celeste], sustain (bass) sustain (treble), and swell.

From 1793 onwards many Parisian square pianos, like the one shown here, incorporated an improved action, using an intermediate lever to improve response in the touch while retaining a very prompt repetition.

Although many players were apparently satisfied with Zumpe's basic design up to 1800, significant improvements were introduced by a number of craftsmen during the 1780s and 1790s. Principally these focused on making the touch more expressive – with Erard's action just mentioned or, even better, by including an escapement mechanism. There was also, concurrently, a desire to extend the keyboard from five to five-and-a-half octaves, for which William Southwell of Dublin is often remembered. Leading makers in London at this time were Longman & Broderip, (their best instruments being made by John Geib), brothers Frederick & Christian Schoene, and John Broadwood, and in Paris, Sebastien Erard. Pianos bearing the name of Muzio Clementi emerged after the collapse of Longman & Broderip's business in 1796, relaunched under the name of Longman, Clementi & Company. However, from 1801 he took a bigger, controlling stake, when the firm was renamed 'Muzio Clementi & Co'.

Shown here is a typical square piano of 1820, this one by John Broadwood & Sons, London. It has the usual five-and-a-half octaves, and a sustaining pedal. Notice that the pedal is under the left foot, not the right. This was customary at that period with all makers, even though contemporary grand pianos had the sustaining pedal under the right foot, as expected today. After 1800 most English square pianos had just this one pedal, but German pianos, and many American ones, often had a second pedal for the soft-sounding 'moderator' effect. French square pianos were usually supplied with a row of four pedals, until about 1820.

Hear this piano in music by Beethoven.


After 1820 square pianos were constantly redesigned for a more powerful tone. The keyboard was extended upwards again, to six octaves, and afterwards in both directions to reach seven octaves. To achieve this stronger tone string gauges were progressively increased, until the strain was almost four times greater than on eighteenth-century pianos. To match these taut high tensionstrings the hammers were made larger, and heavier, and in consequence the touch lost much of its former lightness and facility. In an effort to prevent structural collapse these later square pianos were fitted with an iron hitch plate (from around 1825) and afterwards, on American pianos, full metal framing (from about 1845). Such instruments are aptly named 'grand square pianos'

Square Piano by Mathuschek, about 1875

Shown here is the ultimate square piano, for sophistication and quality of workmanship. It was made by Mathuschek & Co. of New York, about 1875. (Moravian College, Bethlehem, PA). It has a full iron frame, with over-stringing on three levels. The tone is very strong, on a par with late nineteenth-century grand pianos, and the treble tones are very clear and bell-like. Here the elaborately carved casework, in a pseudo-baroque style, has a polished ebonised finish, probably applied by an over-enthusiastic piano shop; many by this maker have rosewood veneered exteriors. Richard Burnett has made an impressive recording on such a piano by Mathuschek.

Hear the piano by Mathuschek at Finchcocks.


It is available on CD with his book Company of Pianos featuring more than 30 instruments. In England and France the last square pianos were made about 1866. By then the modern style of compact uprights, called 'cottage pianos' or 'cabinet pianos' had become more popular for small rooms, though their touch was never equal to a good square piano. The last American examples were made c.1905. Thereafter square pianos, particularly the earlier types, were regarded with wistful nostalgia as something quaint and old-fashioned, featured by many artists of genre scenes to evoke 'bygone times', usually played by a young lady in Regency-style dress. Only in recent years has there been a renaissance when these long-neglected instruments have been appreciated for their fine craftsmanship and the beautiful effects that they can impart to classical period music.

Further Reading

  • To read more about early square pianos of German manufacture
    and some possible antecedents for Zumpe (takes you to a supplementary page on this site).

  • See also Michael Cole's book, Broadwood Square Pianos.

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